Charging allows you to move more than your speed and attack as a full action. You must move at least 10 feet and may move up to twice your speed. You must stop as soon as you are within striking range of your target (you can't run past the target and attack from another direction).
During the surprise round, you can use the charge action, but you are only allowed to move up to your speed (instead of up to twice your speed). This is also true in other cases where you are limited to a single standard or move action per round.
After moving, you may make a single melee attack. You get a +2 bonus on the attack roll and also take a -2 penalty to your Defense for 1 round (until the beginning of your action the following round).
With a succesful Difficulty 15 Acrobatics check, any character can take a charge action that involves changes of direction or nimble movement, or even incorporating a Jump check. If a character wishes to jump as part of their charge, they first make the Acrobatics check, to determine if they can perform the charge, then they make a Jump check to determine if they can jump the distance required. If the Acrobatics check is failed, they can still move and still attempt the Jump, but their movement is not considered a charge.